Using Bourdieu’s notion of field, the Scandinavian field of maths pedagogy occurs at a time characterised by increasing inclusion efforts in primary school. Various stakeholders in maths pedagogy are arguing about what should be done about pupils who perform poorly in mathematics and what causes their difficulties. Four analytical positions are presented here: the diagnostic, the structural, the interventionist and the complementary. The literature examined includes academic articles on math pedagogy and scholarly journals for maths teachers from the period 1995–2014. A total of 103 articles were analysed. The results show that a context-oriented rationale dominates, but that a less prevalent, competing rationale emphasising individual causal explanations, is also present. I argue that the structure of the field is changing because of external influences that may affect the organisation of support for poorly performing pupils.