Kampene om SKP-ordningen: En historisk konkret analyse af lovgivningsprocessen vedr. udformningen af støtte- og kontaktpersonordningen

Ida Marie Schrøder, Stine Petersen, Nanna Jørgensen

    Publikation: Ph.d. afhandling/ kandidat/ diplomKandidatspecialeForskning


    The aim of the thesis is to provide an insight into the practice of regulating the Danish Social Legislation and the social politics targeted at homeless people in Denmark. As an example of a historically specific situation, the thesis focuses on the process of the expansion of the target group of the Støtte- og kontaktperson-ordning (§ 80) in the Law of Social Service (no. 573 June 24th 2005). Through a systematic construction of the struggles in ‘the social political field targeted at the homeless’ we strive to provide an explanation of why it took ten years longer for the homeless to be included by the outreach social service, than persons with a mental disorder.

    The theoretical and methodological approach Inspired by the reflexive sociological approach developed by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, we have endeavoured to construct a field of oppositely oriented strategies. The
    intention is to create an understanding of why agents accept the structures of the field as a natural progression – even though the structures have changed with reference to specific interests.

    Through interviews with four agents, who in different ways aim to represent the
    interests of homeless, we have gained an insight into the different strategies of the field. In order to make the strategies visible, we have constructed their different points of views, in relation to the activity of the legal expansion of the target group of the Støtte- og kontaktpersonordning. This shows that often economic and market oriented strategies dominate need and welfare oriented strategies.

    To achieve a broader grasp of the struggles at stake in the field we have made a historical analysis of the symbolic and organisational structures. This is done through a systematical registration of articles about the regulation, organisation, and practice of social services for the homeless, over a time period of approximately 13 years (1992 – 2005). Furthermore we have analysed the legal process of the amendment to § 80 of the Law of Social Service, through a systematical analysis of the legal material.

    A change of perceptions
    With the political intention of organising the Danish welfare system to provide social security to all citizens, Danish social legislation was gathered in a common law and a common system in the late 1970’s. The aim was to support all clients irrespective of their social standard, background or type of problem. Through out the 1980’s and 1990’s the perception of the goal of the social legislation and the social services changed.
    The aim of the regulations was no longer perceived as being solely to meet the interests and needs of the social clients. On the contrary, it was now perceived as being to meet certain needs in order to cut down on the public social budgets. This change of perception has not come about coincidentally. Within the same timeframe, changing governments had taken action to ‘improve’ the social sector by supplying elements from 7 the private market to the public service institutions. The social legislation and the social services were now to provide individual solutions, targeted at specific groups, with the purpose of making the client able to participate in society on the same terms as ‘normal’
    citizens. Therefore the role of the social services would in future be aimed at
    accomplishing progressive results, in order to minimise the role of the public sector.

    In the interests of the homeless?
    The changes entailed a system of centralising the power to regulate the purpose of the social services, in accordance to temporary governmental funds (puljereguler-ing). It became accepted to let predefined amounts of money, set target groups and specific problems, determine the structure of the social services. This way of structuring the social sector meant that the client had to meet the criterias of the individual governmental funds, in order to be acknowledged as a receiver of the services. At the same time it meant that those representing the interests of the homeless would be competing with those representing other underprivileged groups, in order to get hold of the governmental funds. This resulted in local (private and public) social institutions
    and organisations focusing their work on reaching acknowledgement by the government, through increased proficiency of their skills to write applications, handle money, and create results. The effect was fragmented and specialised social services, which in some instances overlooked the actual needs of the least privileged homeless persons.

    The legal process of the amendment to the Act of the Støtte- og kontaktperson ordning exemplifies how the domination of the economic and market oriented interests and strategies made it acceptable to exclude certain groups from receiving the social services which best corresponded with their needs.
    StatusUdgivet - 31 mar. 2006