The effect of three different diets on risk factors for CVD. With focus on whole grain: Effekten af tre forskellige....

Publikation: Ph.d. afhandling/ kandidat/ diplomKandidatspecialeForskning

Abstract

Background: More intervention studies are needed to clarify the effect of diets different in types and amounts of fats and carbohydrates on risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as to clarify a possible beneficial effect of whole grain (WG) intake.
Objective: The aim was to investigate the effect of three ad libitum diets; MUFA: moderate-fat (40E%) with 20E% MonoUnsaturated-Fatty-Acids, LF: Low Fat (25E%), and ConTRol: CTR (35E% fat), all different in glycemic index, on risk factors for CVD, including body weight (BW) and –composition, insulin resistance, plasma lipids, high sensitivty C-reactive protein (hsCRP), blood pressure (BP), and flow mediated vasodilation, after a weight loss of ≥8% of BW. Further, the aim was to assess intake of WG, dietary fiber (DF), folate, vitamin E, magnesium and potassium in the three diets, and to investigate the effect of these dietary components on risk factors for CVD.
Methods: Analyses were made on 6 month data of 106 healthy, overweight and obese individuals (>28 BMI <36kg/m2), 16-35 years of age, who participated in the randomized, controlled dietary intervention study MUFObes, carried out on the Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, from January 2004-2007. WG intake was estimated based on collected information of WG content of the foods, consumed during the 6 month.
Results: The MUFA diet resulted in a sigificantly improvement of fasting insulin levels (p=0.027) and insulin resistance, as assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared to the CTR diet (p=0.002). The LF diet resulted in a near significantly higher increase in lean body mass compared to the MUFA diet (p=0.052). Intake of WG (95g, 66g and 4g/10MJ in the MUFA, LF and CTR group respectively) significantly differed between all groups; with the LF group not reaching the expected officially recommended intake (RI). A higher intake of WG resulted in a significantly lower increase in BW (p=0.041), fat mass (p=0.045), fasting insulin (p<0.001), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), total- (p=0.015) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.026). In addition, a higher intake of total DF and single micronutrients was associated with significantly (p<0.05) beneficial effects on CVD risk factors, including plasma lipids and hsCRP.
Conclusion: The diet high in MUFA was superior in the improvement of insulin resistance compared to an average Western diet. The LF diet, may have a more beneficial effect on body composition compared to the MUFA diet. Intake of WG and micronutrients differed between the groups, and only the MUFA group reached the RI of ≥75g/10MJ. A higher intake of WG had beneficial effects on several risk factors for CVD. Present study also indicate that WG intake may provide beneficial effects beyond the effect of any single component found in WGs.
OriginalsprogDansk
StatusUdgivet - jun. 2009

Emneord

  • ernæring
  • hjerte-karsygdomme

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