Anticipated Bias in Education Outside the Classroom Research – do we promote representative participation?

Karen Seierøe Barfod, Mads Bølling

Research output: Contribution to conference without a publisher/journalPaperResearchpeer-review


In this presentation, teachers’ voluntary participation in research and bias in recruitment are discussed on the basis of current quantitative research.
Critique has been raised that the field of research on school based outdoor learning studies are positively biased. Research has mainly been carried out among teachers and schools being positive about Education Outside the Classroom (EOtC) and maybe also carried out by researchers who are often outdoorsy themselves, which can support this critique (Bentsen et al., 2009). Although a few publications problematize parts of the research, prevailing results are positive towards outdoor learning. Also, informants not positive towards outdoor learning can be reluctant to volunteer for research. This situation can make it difficult to obtain a comprehensive description of the situation of Education Outside the Classroom (EOtC) in Schools. In this presentation, the use of control questions and conservative estimations in qualitative surveys on the prevalence of EOtC are discussed. In a recent enumeration of Danish Schools practicing “Udeskole” (Barfod & Bølling et al., 2021), the use of different methods for collecting data (e-mail survey and telephone calls) provided different and noteworthy results.
Translated title of the contributionForudsigeligt bias i outdoor forskning
Original languageEnglish
Publication dateJun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022
Event9th International Outdoor Education Research Conference (IOERC) - University of Cumbria, Amberside, United Kingdom
Duration: 18 Jul 202222 Jul 2022
Conference number: 9


Conference9th International Outdoor Education Research Conference (IOERC)
LocationUniversity of Cumbria
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address


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