Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (SMFA)

Marianne Pia Lindahl, Signe Andersen, Annette Jørgensen, Christian Frandsen, Liselotte Jensen, Eirikur Benedikz

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review



The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) into Danish (SMFA-DK) and assess the psychometric properties.

SMFA was translated and cross-culturally adapted according to a standardized procedure. Minor changes in the wording in three items were made to adapt to Danish conditions. Acute patients (n = 201) and rehabilitation patients (n = 231) with musculoskeletal problems aged 18-87 years were included. The following analysis were made to evaluate psychometric quality of SMFA-DK: Reliability with Chronbach's alpha, content validity as coding according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), floor/ceiling effects, construct validity as factor analysis, correlations between SMFA-DK and Short Form 36 and also known group method. Responsiveness and effect size were calculated.

Cronbach's alpha values were between 0.79 and 0.94. SMFA-DK captured all components of the ICF, and there were no floor/ceiling effects. Factor analysis demonstrated four subscales. SMFA-DK correlated good with the SF-36 subscales for the rehabilitation patients and lower for the newly injured patients. Effect sizes were excellent and better for SMFA-DK than for SF-36.

The study indicates that SMFA-DK can be a valid and responsive measure of outcome in rehabilitation settings.
Translated title of the contributionTværkulturel tilpasning og validering af den danske version af Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment quesionnaire (SMFA)
Original languageEnglish
JournalQuality of Life Research
Pages (from-to)267-271
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jul 2017


  • research designs, theory and method
  • Cross-cultural adaptation
  • Danish
  • ICF
  • Rehabilitation
  • Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment
  • Valitity


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