Objective: Sacroiliac (SI) joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings simulating sacroiliitis related to axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) may occur in women before and after birth. This study was undertaken to explore the prevalence, evolution, and topography of SI joint MRI lesions in pregnant and postpartum women. Methods: A prospective cohort study included 103 first-time mothers who underwent up to 5 serial SI joint MRI between gestational week 20 and 12 months postpartum. After calibration, 3 assessors independently evaluated bone marrow edema (BME), including sacroiliitis according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS), as well as structural lesions, using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) and a novel 2-plane assessment method. Results: BME was frequent both during pregnancy and the postpartum period, peaking at 3 months postpartum with a prevalence of 69% (SPARCC) and 80% (2-plane method), but still present in 54% (SPARCC) and 58% (2-plane method) of subjects at 12 months postpartum. At 12 months postpartum, sacroiliitis according to the current ASAS definition was met in 41%, while 21% and 14% of women fulfilled the newly proposed ASAS MRI thresholds for active and structural SI joint lesions, respectively. BME clustered in the anterior middle joint portions at all time points, and ligamentous BME was rare. At 12 months postpartum, SPARCC erosion scores ≥3 (ASAS threshold) were observed in only 2.8% of women. Conclusion: At 12 months postpartum, 41% of women met the current ASAS sacroiliitis definition, which may result in false-positive assignments of axial SpA diagnosis in postpartum women with back pain. The topographical BME distribution and virtually absent erosions (ASAS threshold) at 12 months postpartum may help discriminate postpartum strain-related conditions from axial SpA–related sacroiliitis.