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Abstract
Students’ preferred strategies for solving arithmetic problems have been shown to be related to general mathematics achievement. Furthermore, use of numberbased strategies (NBS), i.e. strategies related to understanding of numbers and operations (but not automatisation of standard algorithm), are recommended in Danish curriculum aims in mathematics.
Sunde et al. (2023) found Danish grade 1 students’ strategy use in singledigit addition predicted mathematics achievement in grade 4. Sunde et al. (2020) found large gender differences in grade 1—4 students’ arithmetic strategy use in singledigit addition. This lead to the question: what happens beyond the early grades and singledigit addition?
With a new extensive study on 2298 Danish grade 3, 6 and 8 students’ strategy use for multidigit arithmetic (Jóelsdóttir, 2023) we explore the following questions: To what extent is 1) preferences for NBS in multidigit arithmetic related to general mathematics achievement, i.e. national test scores in mathematics (NT), in grades 3, 6 and 8, and 2) do gender differences appear in NBS in these grades.
Student preference for strategies in wholenumber multidigit arithmetic problems in addition, subtraction and for grade 6 and 8 multiplication, was assessed in an adaptation of the Triphase Flexibility Assessment (Jóelsdóttir, 2023) and coded for use (yes/no) of NBS.
The proportional use of NBS in solving multidigit arithmetic problems correlated positively with NT (r=0.28, p<0.0001). At all three grade levels, boys used NBS significantly more than girls. In absolute terms, the sex difference was largest in grade 6 (34 vs. 21 %) and lowest in grade 8 (21 vs. 13 %), but in relative terms it was even across grades (boys using NBS c. 50% more than girls).
In linear regression analyses, NBS and NT was similarly positively related in boys and girls (Boys: NT = 0.07+1.06NBS, n=1062,; girls: NT = 0.04+0.936NBS, n=1076; test for difference in slope: t2136= 0.77, p = 0.44; test for difference in intercept: t2136= 0.56, p = 0.58), but explained significantly higher amount of variation in boys (r2= 0.097; 95%CI: 0.0650.132) than in girls (r2= 0.053; 95%CI: 0.0300.082).
We conclude that strategy use in multidigit arithmetic, specifically use of NBS, is an important indicator of students’ competence in mathematics, and that gender differences in mathematics are consistent throughout school.
The above analysis is work in progress. The next step is to look further into age related differences related to mathematical achievement and use of numberbased strategies.
Sunde et al. (2023) found Danish grade 1 students’ strategy use in singledigit addition predicted mathematics achievement in grade 4. Sunde et al. (2020) found large gender differences in grade 1—4 students’ arithmetic strategy use in singledigit addition. This lead to the question: what happens beyond the early grades and singledigit addition?
With a new extensive study on 2298 Danish grade 3, 6 and 8 students’ strategy use for multidigit arithmetic (Jóelsdóttir, 2023) we explore the following questions: To what extent is 1) preferences for NBS in multidigit arithmetic related to general mathematics achievement, i.e. national test scores in mathematics (NT), in grades 3, 6 and 8, and 2) do gender differences appear in NBS in these grades.
Student preference for strategies in wholenumber multidigit arithmetic problems in addition, subtraction and for grade 6 and 8 multiplication, was assessed in an adaptation of the Triphase Flexibility Assessment (Jóelsdóttir, 2023) and coded for use (yes/no) of NBS.
The proportional use of NBS in solving multidigit arithmetic problems correlated positively with NT (r=0.28, p<0.0001). At all three grade levels, boys used NBS significantly more than girls. In absolute terms, the sex difference was largest in grade 6 (34 vs. 21 %) and lowest in grade 8 (21 vs. 13 %), but in relative terms it was even across grades (boys using NBS c. 50% more than girls).
In linear regression analyses, NBS and NT was similarly positively related in boys and girls (Boys: NT = 0.07+1.06NBS, n=1062,; girls: NT = 0.04+0.936NBS, n=1076; test for difference in slope: t2136= 0.77, p = 0.44; test for difference in intercept: t2136= 0.56, p = 0.58), but explained significantly higher amount of variation in boys (r2= 0.097; 95%CI: 0.0650.132) than in girls (r2= 0.053; 95%CI: 0.0300.082).
We conclude that strategy use in multidigit arithmetic, specifically use of NBS, is an important indicator of students’ competence in mathematics, and that gender differences in mathematics are consistent throughout school.
The above analysis is work in progress. The next step is to look further into age related differences related to mathematical achievement and use of numberbased strategies.
Translated title of the contribution  Kønsforskelle i regnestrategier: Eksempler fra dansk forskning 

Original language  English 
Publication date  17 Nov 2023 
Publication status  Published  17 Nov 2023 
Event  3rd QUERD: 3rd Meeting on Quantitative Educational Research in Denmark  Comwell Kellers Park, Vejle, Denmark Duration: 16 Nov 2023 → 17 Nov 2023 
Conference
Conference  3rd QUERD 

Location  Comwell Kellers Park 
Country/Territory  Denmark 
City  Vejle 
Period  16/11/23 → 17/11/23 
Keywords
 schools, courses and institutions
Projects
 1 Active

Tal og regnestrategier: Fleksibilitet og adaptivitet
Jóelsdóttir, L. B. (Principle researcher), Sunde, P. B. (Principle researcher) & Andrews, P. R. (Coresearcher)
01/02/23 → 30/06/26
Project: Research
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