Metaboloepigenetics in cancer, immunity, and cardiovascular disease

Samuel T. Keating, Assam El-Osta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The influence of cellular metabolism on epigenetic pathways is well documented but misunderstood. Scientists have long known of the metabolic impact on epigenetic determinants. More often than not, that title role for DNA methylation was portrayed by the metabolite S-adenosylmethionine. Technically speaking, there are many other metabolites that drive epigenetic processes that instruct seemingly distant-yet highly connect pathways-and none more so than our understanding of the cancer epigenome. Recent studies have shown that available energy links the extracellular environment to influence cellular responses. This focused review examines the recent interest in epigenomics and casts cancer, metabolism, and immunity in unfamiliar roles-cooperating. There are not only language lessons from cancer research, we have come round to appreciate that reaching into areas previously thought of as too distinct are also object lessons in understanding health and disease. The Warburg effect is one such signature of how glycolysis influences metabolic shift during oncogenesis. That shift in metabolism-now recognized as central to proliferation in cancer biology-influences core enzymes that not only control gene expression but are also central to replication, condensation, and the repair of nucleic acid. These nuclear processes rely on metabolism, and with glucose at centre stage, the role of respiration and oxidative metabolism is now synonymous with the mitochondria as the powerhouses of metaboloepigenetics. The emerging evidence for metaboloepigenetics in trained innate immunity has revealed recognizable signalling pathways with antecedent extracellular stimulation. With due consideration to immunometabolism, we discuss the striking signalling similarities influencing these core pathways. The immunometabolic-epigenetic axis in cardiovascular disease has deeply etched connections with inflammation, and we examine the chromatin template as a carrier of epigenetic indices that determine the expression of genes influencing atherosclerosis and vascular complications of diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCardiovascular Research
Volume119
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)357-370
Number of pages14
ISSN0008-6363
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetes
  • Epigenetics
  • Glycolysis
  • Metabolism
  • Metaboloepigenetics
  • Trained immunity

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