Strategy use in Multi-Digit Artihmetic: Findings from low Performing Grade 6 Students

Research output: Contribution to conference without a publisher/journalAbstractResearchpeer-review


Aiming for strategy flexibility is an important goal in arithmetic (e.g. Baroody,
2003; Verschaffel et al., 2007). However, there is limited research about
multidigit arithmetic strategies used by lower achieving students, and if and
how they differ from the normal and higher achieving students (Verschaffel et
al., 2007). In this study, data from 685 Danish grade 6 students’ written answers
to multidigit addition, subtraction and multiplication was anlysed for accuracy
and strategy type. In the written, Tri-phase Flexibility Assessment (Xu et al.,
2017), students communicate their solution strategies. The strategies were
categorised, number-based strategies, for example decomposition, sequential
and compensation, digit-based strategies, most commonly the standard
algorithm, no solution, when the student did not communicate a method,
and other methods. The use of (i) number-based strategies and (ii) standard
algorithm was compared by achievement group, as defined by results from the
Danish national test in mathematics: Two low achieving student groups, LA1
(the lowest 10%), LA2 (next 25%), average achieving group, AA (the 30% of
students closest to the mean score), and two high achieving groups, HA1 (the
highest 10%) and HA2 (the next 25%).
Translated title of the contributionStrategier til regning med flercifrede tal: Med fokus på de lavest præsterende elever i 6. klasse
Original languageEnglish
Publication date23 Nov 2023
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2023
EventNORSMA 11: The Nordic Research network on Special Needs Education in Mathematics - DPU Aarhus Universitet, Tuborgvej 164, 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark
Duration: 23 Nov 202324 Nov 2023


ConferenceNORSMA 11
LocationDPU Aarhus Universitet, Tuborgvej 164
City2400 Copenhagen NV
Internet address


  • learning, educational science and teaching

Cite this