Virksom efter- og videreuddannelse: Forskningsbaseret viden om faktorer, der fremmer overføringen af indlæringsresultater til praksis

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Abstract

Higher education institutions have many opportunities to increase the benefits of further education, make further education more effective and support participants’ competence development. By influencing a number of factors prior to, during and after completion of an education, higher education institutions can help participants apply what they have learned subsequently at their work place.

Before an education starts, participants can actively be involved in the planning of teaching in order to motivate the participants and ensure a better link between teaching and participants’ work places. Participants’ self-efficacy and, consequently, the transfer of learning outcomes to the work place can also be increased by giving positive feedback, helping participants to set learning goals and to structure their learning process already before teaching begins. The perceived value of an education can be increased by clearly communicating its importance, relevance and meaning to the individual participant as well as to their work place prior to the teaching. Higher education institutions should therefore enter into a direct dialogue with employers, inform them about how participants can be prepared optimally for a further education and make information regarding the education’s value and concrete usefulness at the work place available.

Furthermore, higher education institutions can inform employers about important conditions related to participants’ work environment, which support the application of what has been learned at the work place. For example, supervisors can become part of “transfer strategies”. Higher education institutions can underline the importance of positive feedback, after participants have finished a further education, of flexibility in participants’ work tasks and workdays as well as of opportunities, time and resources to apply what has been learned immediately after completion of the education. Supervisors can also actively motivate participants to apply what has been learned and facilitate follow-up dialogues and reflection over learning outcomes and their application. Participants can at the same time be prepared by “training them in transfer”, e.g. teaching them in how to prevent falling back into old routines and habits.

During teaching, higher education institutions can improve chances for transfer by using tools like error management, behavioral modelling and realistic teaching contexts. That means teachers should give participants room to make mistakes, give instructions for how to handle mistakes and how to learn from them. Teachers should also explain clearly, how participants are supposed to behave in particular situations, show examples of such situations and the expected behavior, give participants the opportunity to train the expected behaviors and give feedback on that training. Lastly, teaching should be held at the workplace or in contexts that resemble the work place as much as possible. For example, simulations, realistic work scenarios and practice examples can be used to increase the similarity between teaching and the work place.

Whether learning outcomes are applied at the work place is subject of research on transfer. Transfer means “in the context of pedagogics, that one applies what has been learned in a – more or less – new situation” . In the last three decades, international research on transfer has identified a number of factors that increase chances for successful transfer. Those factors are typically categorized into three groups: factors linked to the individual participant, to teaching and to the work environment. To the first category belong participants’ motivation, self-efficacy and their ability to set and commit to goals. To the second category belongs the similarity of teaching and the work place as well as pedagogical tools like error management, behavioral modelling and realistic teaching contexts. To the third category belong supportive colleagues and supervisors as well as work conditions like flexibility in ones workday, opportunities, time and resources for applying what has been learned and follow-up dialogues and reflection over what has been learned.

This report presents a review of research-based knowledge on factors that increase chances for successful transfer. The report is based on scientific reviews on transfer and Danish publications on transfer since 2010.

Original languageDanish
Place of PublicationAarhus
PublisherVIA University College
Number of pages33
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

Keywords

  • education
  • learning
  • skill development

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