Optimizing School Food Supply - Integrating Environmental, Health, Economic, and Cultural Dimensions of Diet Sustainability with Linear Programming

  • Patricia Eustachio Colombo (Andet)
  • Emma Patterson (Andet)
  • Liselotte Schäfer Elinder (Andet)
  • Anna Karin Lindroos (Andet)
  • Ulf Sonesson (Andet)
  • Nicole Darmon (Andet)
  • Alexandr Parlesak
Beskrivelse
There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public-sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply while ensuring nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability.
Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining the relative deviation (RD) from the observed food supply, Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions, Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit, and Model 4 further controlled how pair-wise ratios of 15 food groups could deviate.
Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food-group ratios. Model 4 limited the changes in food-group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE in one school to 20%. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions.
An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply; i.e., with Models 3 and 4. Trade-os will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.
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OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer3019
TidsskriftInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Vol/bind16
Udgave nummer17
Sider (fra-til)1-18
Antal sider18
ISSN1661-7827
PublikationsartForskning
Peer reviewJa

Samarbejdspartnere

  • Karolinska Institute
  • University of Montpellier
  • Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE)
  • The National Food Agency
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