The concept of learning in cultural-historical perspective
A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses their implications for understanding learning. Brief comments are made about the notions of internalization and zone of proximal development. Subsequent theoretical developments are mentioned, with a special focus on the idea of learning activity and developmental teaching. The chapter concludes with three issues that deserve further research within this perspective.